The Development of Malaysian Capitalism: From British Rule to the Present Day
As Malaysia grappled with bitter ethnic and political tensions at the end of the 1960s, the government initiated growth-oriented economic reforms to promote cohesion in the young, multi-ethnic nation. The large scale and lasting effects of these policies forged the countries’ exceptional economic development: by 2020, Malaysia will likely enter the club of ‘high-income’ countries.
The Development of Malaysian Capitalism: From British Rule to the Present Day was conceived, constructed and written in French, my mother tongue, before being translated into English.
In Italian, the verb to translate (tradurre) and to betray (tradire) share a common etymological root, underlining the difficulties inherent in the work of translation.
Indeed, translation is not a simple transfer of words from one language to another. It contains the necessary dimension of interpretation to ensure that the text remains fully intelligible in its nuances, for speakers using another system of signifiers. Such an exercise therefore involves the significant risk of moving away from the intended meaning of the original text or of proposing explanations which lose their meaning, or some part of their precise consistency, by being transposed. Notwithstanding the stylistic question of how the personal tone of the author might be erased in the process.
Thus, despite all the precautions taken and several read-throughs of the manuscript, it is possible that errors or misunderstandings resulting from the translation work remain in the text. I do thank the kind reader for their understanding in this matter.
Elsa Lafaye de Micheaux
Rennes, March 2017